Motivation Equation

1KZ or 2LT, 3B or 13BT, 1C and 2L, confusing numbers and alphabet game or engine designations, who knows… it might as well be Greek for those who aren’t engine savvy. If you are even considering building a Jeep in Pakistan, you should know the various engine choices available to you. Read on and enlighten yourself.


Choosing the right engine is the most important decision for those of us lucky enough to own a real Jeep. As we all know, almost all Jeeps to be found in Pakistan, came outfitted with petrol engines from the factory, even though Jeep has offered diesels in the European market for years now. Why these vehicles never made it the Pakistani market is a story for another column. Anyone who has lived in Pakistan for any length of time can tell that the prohibitive price of petrol has created a diesel conversion craze. The diesel advantage in Pakistan is clear: You get an engine that is at least 30% more efficient than its petrol counterpart and it runs on fuel that costs less than two thirds as much. This economic advantage totally overshadows the facts that the majority of diesels available to choose from are antiquated designs that are noisy and rough, terribly underpowered for their size and weight, and gross polluters. The unfortunate motorcyclists and pedestrians of our country know the last fact all too well.

However, all is not lost. The diesels available to us may be antiquated and underpowered, but there are some tried and true performers amongst them that have withstood the test of time and the trail. In the course of building a Jeep, the mechanic will usually suggest which engine to go with. Opinions on the best engine for the job differ between mechanics, depending on their technical expertise and the ruggedness of the Jeeps they build. That makes it all the more important for the owner to be educated about the engines available. For instance if your mechanic is adamant about dropping a Hilux 2.4 litre engine into your project CJ-7, you may seriously want to reconsider your choice of mechanic. The following list can be used as a reference guide to selecting the ideal engine for different kinds of Jeeps.

1951-52 Willy’s M38, CJ2A, Ford MB

These are the most commonly found flat-fender Jeeps. Their engine bay is by far the smallest, calling for smaller, lighter engines than those required for other Jeeps.

  • Toyota 2L-T [E/HE]: This turbocharged engine is available in many variations. Although some are EFI and others have ceramic valve seats, power output is roughly the same in all models. In my humble opinion, this is the best engine for flat fender Jeeps as far as performance is concerned. It is rather pricey and also a tight fit in the engine bay but you cannot go wrong with turbocharged performance.
  • Toyota L and 2L: The 2.2 liter L used to be the most popular engine for flat fenders until it was replaced by the 2.4 liter 2L. The 2L is basically the naturally aspirated version of the 2L-T. While the stroke is the same as the L, it has a larger bore for increased displacement. This makes the 2L a very rev happy engine, with the redline starting at a stratospheric 5000 rpm. The 2L is second only to the 2L-T. This engine is a good balance of economy and power.
  • Nissan 2.2 liter: This naturally aspirated 4-cylinder has always played second fiddle to the L. Although the same displacement, but weaker, cheaper, and noisier, it is the poor man’s L.
  • Toyota 2C turbo: This small, lightweight engine develops roughly as much or slightly less power than the 2.4 liter 2L ands costs roughly the same too. It is not a widely available engine, and its turbocharged histrionics make it unpopular with the turbo-averse crowd. The 2L is regarded as a superior engine because of its larger displacement.
  • Toyota 1C and 2C: These two engines have been included here only as a warning. The 1C and 2C, pushing a whopping 1.8 and 2.0 liters of displacement respectively, are absolutely worthless for use in a Jeep. The only thing they are capable of powering with marginally acceptable performance is a Corolla, the vehicle they were originally designed for. Best used as boat anchor otherwise.

Early model CJ-5, M38A1 and M170 ambulance

These Jeeps have a shorter length engine bay than the later model CJs but have more vertical room than the flat fenders.

  • Toyota 2L and 3L: The 2L really is a marginal engine for these heavier Jeeps. The 3L is the 2L’s big brother. At 2.8 liters, it produces ample power and torque to propel these middleweights.
  • Toyota 2L-T: The 2L-T is roughly as powerful as the 3L, if not more. It can be easily squeezed into the engine bay on these Jeeps. Being turbocharged, they have potential for even more power in the hands of those people who know what they’re doing.
  • Toyota 2LTE and 2LT-II: The is the EFI version of the above engine. The other major difference is the larger head as compared to the non-efi version.

Late model CJ-5, CJ-6, CJ-7, CJ-8 Scrambler, and Wagoneer/Cherokee

This group of Jeeps can be called the heavyweights. They have the largest engine bays of all Jeeps. Redesigned suspension and chassis on these Jeeps make’s them capable of higher highway speeds, calling for more powerful engines.

  • Toyota B series: The B series engines have powered not only many different Toyota vehicles since the 1960s, but also refrigeration units and industrial equipment. Made primarily by Hino and also by Daihatsu, the B series is probably the most reliable diesel engine to find its way into a Jeep. The gear-drive timing set replaces the timing belt found on other diesels. Although slightly noisier, timing gears and pushrod operated valves eliminate the risk of timing belt failure and subsequent destruction of the engine’s rotating assembly.

Starting with the B at 2.8 liters, the 1B, 2B, and 3B displace 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 liters respectively. With its ever abundant torque and power, the 3B is the most favoured engine of the lot. It’s rated power is 90hp@3500rpm. The 3B also boasts the best oiling system of all the B series engines. Unlike other naturally aspirated diesels, it has oil injectors at the bottom of the cylinder skirts for better cylinder wall lubrication. Toyota replaced the 3B with the 13B-T. This is basically a technically updated and turbocharged version of the 3B and produces 120hp@3400rpm. It can also be found as the 13B in local markets. After much research, I have come to the conclusion that this is simply a 13B-T engine stripped of its turbo setup and outfitted with intake and exhaust manifolds off a regular B series engine. All commonly available B series engines can also be found with plunger or rotary fuel pumps. The plunger pump is slightly noisier, but it is also completely rebuildable and seems to have far more torque throughout the RPM range.

Other B series engines not so commonly available are the 11B, 14B, 14B-T, and 15B. With the 14B at 3.7 liters and 15B at 4.1 liters, these are probably the largest 4-cylinder engines in use today. While B series engines are by far the most popular choice for CJs, they also have their drawbacks. The weight of the huge cast iron block and cylinder head adversely affect the Jeep’s already marginal handling characteristics and require beefed up front suspension.

  • Toyota 1KZ-TE: The 1KZ-TE is Toyota’s turbocharged replacement for the 3L. This 3.0 liter engine is a new design from the ground up. It boasts high tech features such as electronically controlled fuel injection and engine and emissions management systems. The result is outstanding performance from a light weight engine, but for a pretty heavy price. The engine is not easily available in Pakistan at the moment, although that might change in the future. Most mechanics have no idea how to wire up this EFI engine, let alone make it work properly; the more conventional non-EFI 1KZ-T may be a better choice for the technically challenged, but it also makes a good deal less power.

1KZTE Specs: 96kW@3600; 343Nm@2000

  • Nissan RD28: This peppy, high revving, 2.8 liter 6-cylinder engine has found its way into quite a few CJ-7s. The 6-cylinder configuration makes it exceptionally smooth for a diesel. Its high revving nature means plenty of horsepower at the top end of the RPM range, but small displacement takes away low end torque. This is a good engine for daily driving on the street, but not ideally suited to off road situations where low end torque really counts. This is the main reason why the technically inferior but torqueier B series engines have always been preferred over the RD28.
  • Toyota 1HD-T: This is Toyota’s ultimate diesel – 4.2 liter, 6-cylinder, turbocharged monster – and it powers the legendary 100 series Land Cruiser, also popularly known as ‘Cruising’ and VX turbo in Pakistan, and also 70 and 80 series ‘Cruisers. This engine has changed a fair bit over the years since its inception in 1993, going from conventional non-EFI and 12 valves to EFI and 24 valves with computer-controlled automatic transmission. Depending on the year, it produces anywhere between 165 to 205 horsepower. Although a few (read VERY few) people are reported to have put these engines in their CJ-7s, whether these Jeeps even exist still remains an unsubstantiated myth. The engine is roughly the same length as the CJ-7’s original 4.2 liter petrol engine, but it is much wider and weighs much more too. As with anything even remotely associated with the 100 series Land Cruiser, the cost of this conversion is prohibitively expensive and it requires more custom fabrication than any other conversion. Early model 12 valve engines were also prone to rod knock due to inadequate oiling. Apparently, the engine’s oiling system doesn’t develop enough pressure at low engine speeds to prevent metal-to-metal contact on the big end bearings on the connecting rods. Elevated cylinder pressure under high turbo boost pushes the piston down much harder than the oil pressure on the bottom end can counteract. The resulting metal-to-metal contact occurs only under low RPM, high load conditions, such as trying to accelerate in too high a gear, but the metal particles swimming around in the oil attack other internal components also, leading to the engine’s early and untimely demise. Toyota had a issued a recall for engines with this problem, but there is no telling whether a used engine will need a rebuild unless it is disassembled and inspected. The cost of rebuilding a 1HZ was at least Rs. 60,000 2 years ago. Inflation and changing import duties have probably added another 5000-10,000 to that figure.

Common Rail Diesels

Almost all new diesels are common rail – which is significantly different from the older designs. A common rail engine uses a high presuure pump to maintain 26,000 to 30,000 pounds pressure in a fuel rail which feeds the injectors. That means at any engine speed, every injector gets the same maximum pressure. The higher the pressure, the smaller the injector nozzle openings can be, producing smaller pulses that provide better fuel atomization. Combine that with more frequent, strategically timed pulses during each compression-stroke injection, and the result is more complete combustion.

The majority of current common-rail systems employ solenoid injectors – these are actuated by a magnetic field generated by electric current. However, newer injectors use piezoelectric technology.

CRD diesels are quieter, pollute less and more powerful. A win-win situation, except for one drawback – they require regular maintanence and clean fuel, both of which are in short supply in Pakistan. Common rail engines are asssembed in ‘clean rooms’, which means they cannot be opened up in any local workshop. A 28,000 psi encounter with a bit of dirt is not going to be pretty!

Whenever any work is done in the fuel system, like changing the fuel filter or an injector or just about anything else, the technique here to get the air out of the system is to loosen the injectors one by one and let them squirt out the air. With a common rail, that technique is obviously not going to work – or if it does it won’t be too healthy for the mechanic tightening the injectors. This is not to even mention the often dodgy diesel outside the big cities.

As of April 2005, common rail engines aren’t available in the local market. Once they are, more will follow.

Related Links:

  • Landcruiser FAQ :: Has detailed information about the entire line of Toyota landcruiser engines.
  • ‘Toyota Landcruiser: Engine Specifications’:http://www.off-road.com/tlc/faq/engine.html

Please post engine/tech related questions at the forums.

32 thoughts on “Motivation Equation”

  1. Wealth of info for prospective Jeep re-builders Imad, you need to find out the weights of all the engines you have mentioned in your article and also give a list of the engine weight and the transmission weight of the original stock petrol engines along with the R&P ratios compared with the proposed ratios for the diesels that one intends to install along with the gear box. The gear boxes also have different output ratios for different tyre sizes. Diesels are much heavier engines and without installation of a restraining bar holding the chasis together result in eventual chasis cracking or bending outwards lengthwise, resulting in severe damage and occassional broken body mounts.

    Good work keep it up.

  2. Thank you for the kind words. I am planning to deal with transmission and axle choices, and diesel conversion issues in other articles soon.

  3. Very impressive.. Nice to read through with lots of information.. Pictures would be an added benifit.. :) .. Also.. a 1HZ costs much more then 60000 these days.. A B2 costs more then 60 K nowadays..

    Keep it up

    Ehsan

  4. … a 1HZ costs much more then 60000 these days.. A B2 costs more then 60 K nowadays..

    Keep it up

    Ehsan

    Yes, I meant that it costs upwards of Rs 60,000 to REBUILD or OVERHAUL a 1HZ. I agree though, engine prices are ludicrous – these things arrive as scrap packed into a container like sardines and then the kabarias make a fortune off them

  5. I wanted to make my own off road jeep can u advise me on getting whihc one. We just want to use one that suits our needs in Norther Area roads and not highway

    Any starters guide lines. Your tips for engines are very good.

    Usman

  6. I hav a petrol Suzuki SJ410 but its consumption is quite much, i want to convert it into Diesel. I would prefer a diesel Turbo engine. Plz recommend a suitable engine.

    Thank you,

    Shan.

  7. There are no diesel engines in the local market that will install in an SJ410 without completely upsetting its weight distribution and ruining handling and ride quality. The smallest Toyota diesel is the 1C and it stills weighs MUCH more than the SJ’s 1000cc petrol engine. The SJ doesn’t weigh enough to withstand the harsh vibrations of a diesel. The extra weight in the front also worsens the already marginal ride quality of the SJ. You may have noticed that the back end of the SJ is EXTREMELY light. A diesel engine will make that even worse by adding extra weight in the front. The front leaf springs will also need extra leafs to handle the increased weight. As far as the efficiency of the diesel over the petrol engine is concerned, a 1C will use as much fuel as the 1000cc petrol, probably even more. The govt is also planning on equalizing the cost of petrol and diesel within the next couple of years so you won’t save any money by converting to diesel. Then there is also the cost of the engine and paying a mechanic to install it. Diesels also cost much more to overhaul than petrol engines and you will need to overhaul it at some point.

    Converting an SJ410 to diesel makes no sense from any point of view, whether engineering or financial. It would be a waste of money and time and you would end up with a vehicle with terrible ride quality and lousy acceleration.

  8. Hi there, its really a great site ur maintaining. I wanted to know that can the nissan 2.2 engine can work in cj-5 not for extreme offroading like u people do but basically for the farm house type, as I am about to buy a 1960 Cj-5 having nissan 2.2 .

    Thank you

  9. Taimoor, whether a Nissan 2.2 Liter engine in a CJ-5 is suitable for you depends on a number of factors. Toyota’s comparable L, and now the 2L, are superior engines both from a power and reliability point of view. The Nissan 2.2 liter engine is more trouble prone, and parts are expensive and difficult to find. On the other hand you can find Toyota parts anywhere in the most remote corners of the country. However, the if the Jeep in question is in good enough shape to offset the disadvantage of having a Nissan 2.2 liter engine, and the engine is also in good shape, then go for it. It should be more than enough for light duty.

    To the webmaster – let’s move all question and answer sessions to the forums from here on. The comments sections are getting mighty cluttered while the forums remain bone dry. THIS is what the forums are really for – to foster the open discussion of Jeep tech and travel.

  10. Note to future comment poster:

    Please post your questions in the forums. These are accessible through the link on the homepage. Thanks

  11. Jason, i’ve been out of touch for a long time but still remember the rates somewhat. I nicely tuned jeep might cost u between $3000 to $7000. It all depends on the condition of the engine, suspension and the overall look whereas the mileage is not that important there!

    Anyone wants to correct me on somepoint, please do.

  12. hello,im from the philippines I have an assemnled wrangler its engine is a Toyota 2L disiel engine, I want to know about its durability, can u give me some info and can you give me some info if it is supirior over other engines in its class?

  13. I need info—trying to install 2LT in 87 toyota 4X4 pickup has 22RTE now. I have a 2LT engine lined up but need flywheel and bellhousing-transmission to make it work. Do you know where I can get needed items or have toyota part numbers? Thanks for any help you can give.

    Dave at MecWelder@aol.com

  14. Good day Dear Chris.

    I am from Philippines, I got this Land Cruiser with only 2L Engine 2.4liter.

    Problem is the Fuel injection pump is not calibrated I think, black smoke and not much power, and “Engine Check led” indicator would always light up when engine warmed up, and engine lost almost 50% power and have noise of like fuel knock.. maybe because of the conversion from right hand drive to left hand drive.. (Japan to Philippine Standard)

    attached is the photo.

    I got the this Land Cruiser from an auction here, it came from Japan, manufactured in 1992.

    I believe the EFI need computer software and to diagnose and calibrate the said fuel injection pump.. which we do not have it here.. I tried to resorting to changing the pump with the conventional type (NOT EFI) , which we could not figure out how to make the engine build power.. finally I gave up.

    I want to replace the whole Engine with the following:

    3L, which heard many good things from your forum.. but cracking shaft is not very good news though… :o )

    (Does it have same engine mounting system?? also use the same transmission is ok?

    does 3L engine also equiped with EFI?? which I have phobia meddling with.

    I want to ask if my land cruiser can be fitted with 3B Engine?? I think Toyota 3B are not EFI.

    or 1KZ, which I think is with EFI.. what do you think? which is better?

    Regards.

    Yours truly,

    Rudy Santos

    RODSAN Enterprises

    1750-A Yacal Street, Sta. Cruz, Manila,

    1003 Philippines

    Mobile Phone #0063-919-6286591

    Telephone# 00632-2519051

    Tel/Fax# 00632-2511075

    http://motorcyclephilippines.com/rodsan.html

    mailto:rodsan@pworld.net.ph

  15. dear sir,

    i have an original ford gpw jeep in india, iand i have used toyota 1c engine. i just want to know is that good for jeep? and what will be the fuel consumption in the city?

    thanking you,

    aishy.

  16. Yes, many people here have put in a 1C or 2C in the orignal Ford/Willys jeeps. These engines are very reliable, and fuel consumption is decent.

  17. PLEASE REGISTER IN THE FORUMS AND POST ALL YOUR QUESTIONS THERE THE COMMENTS SECTION IS FOR COMMENTS REGARDING THE ARTICLE ONLY

  18. Imad gr8 Show man. I really like the way U have explained all the engines. I plan to rebuild a landcrusier FJ 40 or BJ 40 With a 2-H six cylinder Deisel. Tell me will it work? or would it be too heavy, and if I am not wrong the 3C the predisesser of 1C & 2C is also in the market.

    It also comes with a tubcharger and dispalcment of 2.2 litre. the block is the same as 1 & 2C.

    For willys M38 flat fenders and MK IV it a gr8 engine.

    Any how I really enjoyed the website & I hope that I make my mind up and come to Karachi (fr Lahore) to get my dream com true.

    Hameed

  19. I have a CJ5 jeep in blue.. i wannna know which gear box will go best with the 2.4l toyota engine.and which diffrencials would u reccomend for it,,to give it speed and power in 4×4 mode…

  20. Great site, great article

    Im driving a Toyota BJ70 with the 3B-engine and its a fantastic engine!

    Youre article about the diesel-engines shows me how many engines are build by Toyota(or Hino/Daihatsu). I never noticed that there are so many.

    best wishes from germany,

    Tonito

  21. I personally lover the B series. I run a 2B overbored in my CJ-7 and while I don’t save much on diesel the acceleration and raw power are worth it. Thanks for a wonderful and very informative piece.

  22. hi everybody,

    i plan to convert my M – 38 to diesel ( now i have the buick 225 engine – boozzer). the toyota 2l-te conversion sounds really great but has anyone of you a detailled plan on what parts will be needed and what to pay attention to? can i keep the original gearbox?

    thank you for your help

    max

  23. I have a 2L-T engine and I was just want to know if I can put air filter in the turbo air intake system that is designed for gasoline cars?

    For example: filters that was placed in honda cars, the mushroom type filter insted of the conventional filter.

    Thank you.

  24. Erwin,

    You can use any type of air filter as long as it filters properly and doesn’t choke the engine. Turbos don’t like any dirt at all.

  25. Hai sir, i want a knowlege from u that i want to place a engine in jeep(peugeot 550 xdp) .please tell me which engine will be fit for it for economy and power. it is alredy fitted with peugeot engine 2400 cc but it doesnt give fuel average only10 kms per litre i am intrested in taking 15 to 18 kms average with per litre of diesel. thanks

    Darshan punjab /india

  26. Hello Darshan,

    I would like some information from you about this engine that you are currently using. What horse power and torque does this engine produce and at what rpm?

    Now for some knowledge from us. In Pakistan, as you might have noticed, Toyota disel engines are very popular substitutes. Reason being that Toyota engines are very reliable and their parts are widely available. As for efficiency, not matter what toyota diesel engine we have put in our jeeps we get 8 km per litre in city driving and about 12-14 km per litre in highway driving. The design of Jeeps like ours is a major player in determining fuel efficiency, not to mention the driveline ratios, tyre size and driving habits. Only efi diesels are known to give 15-18 kms/litre while delivering reasonable power.

  27. Super efficient TDi hatchbacks and small sedans are the only cars I know of that will deliver 15-18 km/L, that too with a puny (but surprisingly powerful) 1.8-2.0L turbo EFI diesel. Expecting a jeep to get that kind of mileage borders on the unreasonable. The aerodynamics are next to not being there and gear ratios are low and ill suited for good mileage (very high ratios can hurt mileage just as much too). 8-10 km/L is all you should expect, whether in the city or on the highway. Anymore and consider it bonus mileage. Our CJ-7 managed to squeeze out 14 km/L on a highway journey with a tailwind after getting new injectors. The tailwind added a good 2km/L (maybe more) to the mileage as it takes a lot of power to push that wall of a windscreen through the air at 100kmh. Cruising at excessively high speeds and hard acceleration kills mileage too. About 85-100kmh is good for a jeep with 4.11 axle gears in 5th gear, PROVIDED your suspension and steering allow that kind of speed. The criteria for a new engine should be adequate power, smoothness, and noise. Fuel mileage doesn’t really figure into the jeeper’s grand scheme of things.

  28. is a 2L-T a with EFI a resonable reliable engine?who is the fuel consupmtion on this type of engine?is it resonablly powerful?

  29. 2LT-EFI: The fuel consumption varies from 7-10 km/litre. Since I have low gearing in my jeep, on the highway the consumption actually gets worse. It’s reliable – hasn’t even sputtered once. The efi system has a much longer service life than the manual system it replaces.

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